I will pay for the following article The Disparity In Sentencing In The Criminal Justice System. The work is to be 2 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. The disparity in sentencing in the criminal justice system. In the mid 1970’s a remarkable burst of reforms

(Walker, p. 112) were introduced whose main concern was about disparity and

discrimination in sentencing. The indeterminate sentence was the main focus of the

reform efforts. The sentence in which the offender received a minimum or

maximum sentence and the date of release was decided by the parole board is

known as indeterminate sentence. Under such sentencing the judge was to decide

about the punishment by not only looking at the crime but also looking at the

circumstances and the potential for rehabilitation. On the basis of this judgment

the parole board was to decide the date of release. Discretion was distributed

amongst not only to the justice officials but also the parole board. The result of

this process was:

“A system of sentencing in which there was little

understanding or predictability as to who would be

imprisoned and for how long”

(Bureau of Justice Assistance, p. 6).

Both the liberal and the conservative boards challenged the

reforms. The liberal presented an argument that the intensity on of the punishment

should not rest with the criminal officers or the parole board because they may

have racial issues. While the conservative board argued that the punishments given

to criminals were too lenient. Their arguments bolstered by the findings of

research demonstrating that most correctional programs designed to rehabilitate

offenders and reduce recidivism were ineffective (Martinson).

After a few initial missteps the federal government and

states adopted the determinate proposal. One of the most restrictive systems is the

California’s determinate sentencing this was adopted in 1976. It classified offenses

into four categories of seriousness and established a presumptive sentence, an

aggravated range, and a mitigated range for each category.

The system of determinate sentencing adopted in Illinois gives

the judges all the rights to decide the punishment. In 1977 the legislation enacted

and decided some punishments based on the severity of the crime for example class X

offences (excluding murder) had punishments from six to thirty years. In some of the

states the parole board also played a role that whether a person should be

released or not. Later the parole board was excluded from this decision and the

release completely depended upon the behavior and criminal record of the

offender. Presumptive and voluntary were some of the other reforms which were

made for sentencing. The movements towards the presumptive reforms started in

the 1970’s and it was adopted in many states. But however, most jurisdictions

eventually abandoned voluntary guidelines in favor of determinate sentencing or

presumptive sentencing guidelines.

The National Research Council’s Panel on Sentencing Research

characterized the sentencing decision as “the symbolic keystone of the criminal

justice system” adding that similar cases should be dealt in a similar way and the

aim of punishment should be improving the behavior of the offender and racial or

other issues should be kept aside.


1. www.google.com

2. http://law.jrank.org/pages/2052/Sentencing-Disparity-Sentencing-disparity-sentence-reform.

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