You will prepare and submit a term paper on Truss Steel Structural Features and Elements. Your paper should be a minimum of 1250 words in length. If however, additional equations, formulated on the basis of consistent deformations of the elements, are required along with the equations of static, the structure is known as statically indeterminate structure.
Depending upon the supporting system, structures may be of three types.
a) Line structures having one-dimensional supporting systemb) Surface structures having two-dimensional supporting systemc) Space structures having a three-dimensional supporting system
The structure under consideration for this study is a truss, a surface structure used in roofing systems. “The framework of a truss comprises of struts and ties, designed to be stiff, with pinned or stiff joints. It is a system composed of triangles, which provides the necessary stiffness. They are nowadays usually constructed of steel, though wooden trusses are in use.” (Truss Bridges). Steel, which possesses the strength approximately ten times that of concrete, is by far the most useful material for such structures. Due to its large strength to weight ratio, steel structures also tend to be more economical than concrete structures for tall buildings and large spans. A building structure, consisting of a steel framework skeleton is made up of the following structural elements.
Tension members: TiesCompression members: Columns, Stanchions, StrutsFlexural members: Beams or Girders
No matter how complicated a structure may appear to be, it must consist of some combination of the basic members mentioned above. However, tension members or ties may be combined to form heavy trusses in an extensive framework. A roof truss is basically a framed structure formed by connecting various members at their ends to form a system of triangles, arranged in pre-decided pattern depending upon the span, type of loading and functional requirements. The axes of the members meeting at one joint intersect at common points. The members can be jointed through rivets, welds, bolts or using gusset plates if required. Riveted or bolted joints permit some rotation of the members, and hence the joints are considered as pin joints where bending movement is zero. External loads are generally applied at the joints only (known as panel points) so that the members of the truss carry direct forces (i.e., either tension or compression) only. .